ISSN: 2375-3846
American Journal of Science and Technology  
Manuscript Information
 
 
Characterization of Ethiopian Local Honey Varieties and Development of Honey Based Ready to Eat Snack
American Journal of Science and Technology
Vol.7 , No. 1, Publication Date: Jul. 28, 2020, Page: 1-12
639 Views Since July 28, 2020, 77 Downloads Since Jul. 28, 2020
 
 
Authors
 
[1]    

Misikir Milkias Finsa, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Bio Engineering, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

[2]    

Adamu Zegeye Hadis, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, School of Chemical and Bio Engineering, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

 
Abstract
 

Ethiopia ranks first in Africa and tenth in the world in honey production. This study aimed at developing honey-based extruded ready-to-eat products and determining the physico-chemical properties of honey from three distinct areas of Ethiopia. Accordingly, honey samples obtained from Oromiya (yellow), Tigray (white) and Gonder (red) areas were analyzed. A blend of rice with wheat (60:40%) flour was first formulated, and thereafter, 5%, 10% and 15% of this composite flour was replaced by the same amount of honey for the preparation of extruded snack. Response Surface Methodology was used to investigate the effect of the response variables, lateral expansion, bulk density, color, water absorption and solubility index characteristics. The effect of each honey sample was studied separately and multiple regression equations were obtained to describe the effects of each variable on product responses. The results of the yellow honey analysis showed that it has 22%moisture, 0.273%ash, 4.1pH, 31.5%fructose, 33.9%glucose, 0.7%sucrose, 2.7%maltose, 7meq/kg free acidity, 0.52%water insoluble matters and 0.61µS/cm electrical conductivity; White honey contained 19%moisture, 0.155%ash, 4.1pH, 35.9%fructose, 31.5%glucose, 1.4%sucrose, 0.0%maltose, 5meq/kg free acidity, 0.56%water insoluble matters and 0.41µS/cm electrical conductivity. Red honey contained 19%moisture, 0.039%ash, 4.2pH, 35.4%fructose, 31.4%glucose, 3.3%sucrose, 4.6%maltose, 6meq/kg free acidity, 0.62%water insoluble matters and 0.22µS/cm electrical conductivity. For the purpose of optimization, the process parameters of 115 to 135°C BT, 270 to 350rpm SS and 5 to 15% honey were selected as independent variables. Results showed that increasing the barrel temperature resulted in extrudate with higher expansion, water absorption index, a* value and lower bulk density and L* and b* values. Increasing screw speed resulted in higher expansion, water solubility index, L value and lower bulk density whereas, increasing honey proportion of feed composition resulted in higher a* value, bulk density, water solubility index and lower expansion, water absorption index and L*value. The graphical optimization studies resulted in temperatures of 124.68, 125.12, 124.19°C, screw speed of 310.35, 309.88, 309.79rpm and amount of honey 9.69, 9.89, 9.66% as optimum variables for yellow, white and red honeys respectively. This is similar with the value 125°C BT, 310rpmSS and 10%honey obtained by panelists during sensory analysis for all types of samples. Accordingly white honey-based extrudate was found to be the best and addition of this honey upto 10% was selected as ideal for snack making.


Keywords
 

Extrusion, Extrudate, Honey, Response Surface Methodology


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